„Lykhochvor V., Hnativ P., Petrichenko V., Ivaniuk V., Szulc W., Rutkowska B., Veha N., Olifir Y. 2022. Threat of degradation of agricultural land in Ukraine through a negative balance of nutritional elements in growing of field cultures, J. Elem., 27(3): . DOI: 10.5601/jelem.2022.27.2.2290”
Fertilization in cultivation of grain and other crops in Ukrainian agriculture is insufficient, which may lead to the loss of fertility and irreversible soil depletion in the coming years. The article aims to identify the leading causes of land degradation and desertification in Ukraine, and to explore the problem of high deficits of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium caused by the alienation of nutrients from the soil and disproportionate ratios of fertilizers in intensive agricultural production. Since the beginning of the marketing year 2020/2021, Ukraine has exported approximately 27.6 million tons of cereals and legumes, i.e. 6.3 million tons less than in the same period of the previous marketing year. Specifically, 12.8 million tons of wheat, 3.89 million tons of barley, 10.52 million tons of corn, and 81.2 thousand wheat flour were exported. The calculations showed that - according to the content of nutrients in grain products - harvest from Ukrainian fields extracted more than 1.888 million tons N, 0.275 million tons P, and 0.386 million tons K. In 2019, 88.3% of N, 15.9% of P and 2.6% of K was exported from Ukraine with field crops. Corn absorbs the most essential nutrients among cereals. Winter wheat ranks the second. Reversing the negative balance of N, P, and K is possible by doubling mineral fertilization. Soil degradation and desertification are a disaster for Ukraine, and a significant threat to global food security. These processes can be stopped if the following measures are implemented: 1) additional application of organic fertilizers, 2) larger-scale cultivation of perennial legumes, 3) growing green manure crops, 4) application of optimal doses of mineral fertilizers and microelements, 5) application of waste biomass as fertilizer, and 6) liming of soils.
Słowa kluczowe: grain, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, balance of elements, soil degradation, desertification
Człowiek jest tyle wart ile uczyni
Prof. Julian Aleksandrowicz